The articles below were selected by a group of Canada FASD Research Network (CanFASD) staff, Research Leads, and Family Advisory Committee members to highlight some of the work that has been published over the last year in the field of FASD.

A search of Web of Science, PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Ovid Medline databases, and a manual search of selected scientific journals yielded over 750 articles published in 2021 on FASD and PAE. Many of these were excellent publications and the final list was narrowed down to focus on CanFASD’s areas of emphasis in FASD, categorized below. Additional considerations for what constituted the “top” articles included:

  • Generalizability to Canadians
  • Influence on practice or policy
  • Novelty
  • Scientific rigour
  • Media attention

Final selections were categorized by area of focus, and limited to 5 articles or less per category. All articles are published in peer-reviewed journals. They are arranged in alphabetical order by first author’s surname, and those in bold are available in open access.

Screening, Assessment, and Diagnosis

  1. Cook, J., Unsworth, K., & Flannigan K. (2021). Characterising fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Canada: a national database protocol study. BMJ Open, 11(9), e046071. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046071 Abstract Free Full Text
  2. Grubb, M., Golden, A., Withers, A., Vellone, D., Young, A., & McLachlan, K. (2021). Screening approaches for identifying fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in children, adolescents, and adults: A systematic review. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 45(8), 1527–1547. doi:10.111/acer.14657 Abstract
  3. Reid, N., Hawkins, E., Liu, W., Page, M., Webster, H., Katsikitis, M., Shelton, D., Wood, A., O’Callaghan, F., Morrissey, S., & Shanley, D. (2021). Yarning about fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Outcomes of a community-based workshop. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 108. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2020.103810 Abstract
  4. Temple, V. K., Prasad, S., Popova, S., & Linday, A. (2021) Long-term outcomes following fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnosis in adulthood. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 46(3), 272–280. doi:10.3109/13668250.2020.1824612 Abstract
  5. Whittingham, L. M. & Coons-Harding, K. D. (2021). Connecting people with people: Diagnosing persons with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder using telehealth. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51(4), 1067–1080. doi:10.1007/s10803-020-04607-z Abstract

Clinical Presentation

  1. Gardiner, E., Hutchison, S. M., McLachlan, K., Rasmussen, C., Pei, J., Masse, L. C., Oberland, T. F., & Reynolds, J. N. (2021). Behavior regulation skills are associated with adaptive functioning in children and adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 1–11. doi:10.1080/21622965.2021.1936528 Abstract
  2. Kautz‐Turnbull, C. & Petrenko, C. L. M. (2021). A meta‐analytic review of adaptive functioning in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, and the effect of IQ, executive functioning, and age. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 45(12), 2430–2447. doi:10.1111/acer.14728 Abstract
  3. Kully-Martens, K., Pei, J., McNeil, A., & Rasmussen, C. (2021). Resilience resources and emotional and behavioral functioning among youth and young adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. doi:10.1007/s11469-021-00652-6 Abstract
  4. Popova, S., Temple, V., Dozet, D., O’Hanlon, G., Toews, C., & Rehm, J. (2021). Health, social and legal outcomes of individuals with diagnosed or at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: Canadian example. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 219:108487. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108487 Abstract Free Full Text
  5. Reid, N., Hayes, N., Young, S. B., & Moritz, K. M. (2021). Caregiver-reported physical health status of children and young people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, 12(3), 420–427. doi:10.1017/s2040174420000537 Abstract

Intervention

  1. Pei, J. E., Poth, C., Tremblay, M., & Walker, M. (2021) An integrative systems approach to enhancing service delivery for individuals with complex needs. Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 8(2), 57–68. doi:10.1007/s40474-021-00223-3 Durr, M. R., Petryk, S., Mela, M., DesRoches, A., Wekerle, M., & Newaz, S. (2021). Utilization of psychotropic medications in children with FASD: A retrospective review. BMC Pediatrics, 21. doi:10.1186/s12887-021-02986-5  Abstract Free Full Text
  2. Flannigan, K., Wrath, A. J., McFarlane, A., Murphy, L., & Rogozinski, L. (2021). Integrated service delivery in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD): A review of the Alberta FASD Service Network Model. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 26(2). doi:10.5281/zenodo.5711239 Abstract Free Full Text
  3. Kapasi, A., Pei, J., Kryska, K., Joly, V., Gill, K., Thompson-Hodgetts, S., McLachlan, K., Andrew, G., & Rasmussen, C. (2021) Exploring self-regulation strategy use in adolescents with FASD. Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention, 14(2), 184–206. doi:10.1080/19411243.2020.1822260 Abstract
  4. Nieto-Fernández, Z., Vidal, R., Gómez-Barros, N., & Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2021). Psychological interventions on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder across the life span. Revue Neurologique, 72(5):168–176. doi:10.33588/rn.7205.2020639 Abstract
  5. Pei, J. E., Poth, C., Tremblay, M., & Walker, M. (2021) An integrative systems approach to enhancing service delivery for individuals with complex needs. Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 8(2), 57–68. doi:10.1007/s40474-021-00223-3 Abstract Free Full Text

Mental Health

  1. Flannigan, K., McMorris, C., Ewasiuk, A., Badry, D., Mela, M., Gibbard, W. B., Unsworth, K., Cook, J., Harding, K. D. (2021). Suicidality and associated factors among individuals assessed for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder across the lifespan in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. doi:10.1177/07067437211053288 Abstract Free Full Text

*Prevention and Maternal/Parental Health

*Note: The pNAT creates an annual annotated bibliography of articles on FASD prevention from around the world, organized by all the levels of prevention: https://canfasd.ca/topics/prevention/. The following Canadian studies were identified in the current search and are likely to be in the longer pNAT list when it is completed.

  1. Harding, K. D., Whittingham, L.,  & McGannon, K. (2021). #sendwine: An analysis of motherhood, alcohol use, and #winemom culture on Instagram. Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, 15, 1-9. doi:10.1177/11782218211015195 Abstract Free Full Text
  2. Hubberstey, C., Rutman, D., Van Bibber, M., & Poole N. (2021) Wraparound programmes for pregnant and parenting women with substance use concerns in Canada: Partnerships are essential. Health and Social Care in the Community. doi:10.1111/hsc.13664 Abstract
  3. Lyall, V., Wolfson, L., Reid, N., Poole, N., Moritz, K. M., Egert, S., … Askew, D. A. (2021) “The problem is that we hear a bit of everything…”: A qualitative systematic review of factors associated with alcohol use, reduction, and abstinence in pregnancy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(7), 3445. doi:10.3390/ijerph18073445 Abstract Free Full Text
  4. Wolfson, L., Schmidt, R. A., Stinson, J., & Poole, N. (2021). Examining barriers to harm reduction and child welfare services for pregnant women and mothers who use substances using a stigma action framework. Health and Social Care in the Community, 29(3), 589-601. doi:10.1111/hsc.13335 Abstract Free Full Text

Child Welfare

  1. Burns, J., Badry, D. E., Harding, K. D., Roberts, N., Unsworth, K., Cook, J. L. (2021) Comparing outcomes of children and youth with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in the child welfare system to those in other living situations in Canada: Results from the Canadian National FASD Database. Child: Care, Health and Development, 47(1), 77–84. doi:10.1111/cch.12817 Abstract
  2. Gilbert, D. J., Mukherjee, R. A. S., Kassam, N., & Cook, P. A. (2021). Exploring the experiences of social workers in working with children suspected to have fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Adoption & Fostering, 45(2), 155–172. doi:10.1177/03085759211011735 Abstract Free Full Text
  3. Marcellus, L. & Badry, D. (2021). Infants, children, and youth in foster care with prenatal substance exposure: A synthesis of two scoping reviews. International Journal of Developmental Disabilities. doi:10.1080/20473869.2021.1945890 Abstract Free Full Text

Caregivers and Families

  1. Balcaen, L., Santos, R., Roger, K., & Mignone, J. (2021). Families with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Exploring adoptive parents’ experiences of family well-being. Adoption & Fostering, 45(3):283–299. doi:10.1177/03085759211050044 Abstract Free Full Text
  2. Drotsky, L., Sonday, A., & Gretschel, P. (2021). Photo-elicited interviews: A method to create open communication for mothers raising children with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 20. doi:10.1177/16094069211040980 Abstract Free Full Text
  3. Petrenko, C. L. M., Kautz-Turnbull, C. C., Roth, A. R., Parr, J. E., Tapparella, C., Demir, U., & Olson, H. C. (2021). Initial feasibility of the “Families Moving Forward Connect” mobile health intervention for caregivers of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Mixed method evaluation within a systematic user-centered design approach. JMIR Formative Research, 5(12):e29687. doi:10.2196/29687 Abstract Free Full Text
  4. Weinmann, T., Moder, J. E., Ordenewitz, L. K., Schlueter, J., Jung, J., Kerer, K., … Landgraf, M. N. (2021). Assessing the needs of caregivers of children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Results from a survey among families and professionals in Germany. European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, 33, 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2021.04.008 Abstract

Justice

  1. Dickson, J. & Stewart, M. (2021). Risk, rights, and deservedness: Navigating the tensions of Gladue, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and settler colonialism in Canadian courts. Behavioral Sciences & the Law. doi:10.1002/bsl.2536 Abstract Free Full Text
  2. Flannigan, K., Tremblay, M., Potts, S., Nelson, M., Brintnell, S., O’Riordan, T., Rasmussen, C., & Pei, J. (2021). Understanding the needs of justice-involved adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in an Indigenous community. Behavioral Sciences & the Law. doi:10.1002/bsl.2554 Abstract Free Full Text
  3. Hashmi, S., Richards, D., & Fedoroff, J. P. (2021).  A descriptive analysis of sentencing decisions by the Canadian criminal justice system of people with intellectual disabilities convicted with sexual offences. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 78, 101730. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2021.101730 Abstract
  4. Khalifa, N., Magee, T., Shirazi, S., Salman, S., Yang, C., & Mela, M. (2021). The neurocognitive profiles of justice involved people with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Behavioral Sciences & the Law. doi:10.1002/bsl.2550 Abstract Free Full Abstract
  5. Russell, N. K., Tan, K. Y., Pestell, C. F., Connor, S., & Fitzpatrick, J. P. (2021) Therapeutic Recommendations in the youth justice system cohort diagnosed with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Youth Justice. doi:10.1177/14732254211036195 Abstract

Socio-Political, Ethical, and Policy-Related

  1. Aspler, J., Bogossian, A., & Racine, E. (2021). “It’s ignorant stereotypes”: Key stakeholder perspectives on stereotypes associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, alcohol, and pregnancy. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 47(1), 53-64. doi:10.3109/13668250.2020.1865649 Abstract Free Full Text
  2. Dunbar Winsor, K. (2021). An invisible problem: Stigma and FASD diagnosis in the health and justice professions. Advances in Dual Diagnosis, 14(1), 8–19. doi:10.1108/add-07-2020-0014 Abstract
  3. Flannigan, K., Wrath, A. J., Ritter, C., McLachlan, K., Harding, K. D., Campbell, A., Reid, D., & Pei, J. (2021). Balancing the story of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A narrative review of the literature on strengths. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 45(12), 2448–2464. doi:10.1111/acer.14733 Abstract Free Full Text
  4. Olson, H. C. & Sparrow, J. (2021). A shift in perspective on secondary disabilities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 45(5), 916–921. doi:10.1111/acer.14586 Abstract
  5. Yousefi, N. & Chaufan, C. (2021). “Think before you drink”: Challenging narratives on foetal alcohol spectrum disorder and indigeneity in Canada. Health. doi:10.1177.13634593211038527 Abstract Free Full Text

Basic and Brain Science

  1. Grimm, J., Stemmler, M., Golub, Y. Schwenke, E., Goecke, T. W., Fasching, P. A., … Eichler, A. (2021). The association between prenatal alcohol consumption and preschool child stress system disturbance. Developmental Psychobiology, 63(4), 687–697. doi:10.1002/dev.22038 Abstract Free Full Text
  2. Kar, P., Reynolds, J. E., Grohs, M. N., Gibbard, W. B., McMorris, C., Tortorelli, C., & Lebel, C. (2021). White matter alterations in young children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Developmental Neurobiology, 81(4), 400–410. doi:10.1002/dneu.22821 Abstract
  3. Lebel, C. A., Gibbard, W. B., Tortorelli, C., Pei, J., Beaulieu, Bagshawe, M., & McMorris, C. A. (2021). Prenatal Exposure And Child brain and mental Health (PEACH) study: Protocol for a cohort study of children and youth with prenatal alcohol exposure. BMJ Open, 11(5), e051660. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-051660 Abstract Free Full Text
  4. O’Neill, J., O’Connor, M. J., Kalender, G., Ly, R., Ng, A., Dillon, A. … Levitt, J. G. (2021). Combining neuroimaging and behavior to discriminate children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 16, 69-77. doi:10.1007/s11682-021-00477-w Abstract
  5. Okazaki, S., Otsuka, I., Shinko, Y., Horai, T., Hirata, T., Yamaki, N., … Hishimoto, A. (2021). Epigenetic clock analysis in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 45(2), 329–337. doi:10.1111/acer.14532 Abstract

Animal

  1. Creutzberg, K. C., Sanson, A., Viola, T. W., Marchisella, F., Begni, V., Grassi-Oliveira, R., & Riva, M. A. (2021). Long-lasting effects of prenatal stress on HPA axis and inflammation: A systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis in rodent studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 127, 270–283. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.04.032 Abstract
  2. Rodriguez, C. I., Vergara, V. M., Davies, S., Calhoun, V. D., Savage, D. D., Hamilton, D. A. (2021). Detection of prenatal alcohol exposure using machine learning classification of resting-state functional network connectivity data. Alcohol, 93, 25–34. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2021.03.001 Abstract

Prevalence

  1. Cook, J. L. (2021). Alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Canada: who, what, where? Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada: Research, Policy and Practice, 41(9), 264–266. doi:10.24095/hpcdcp.41.9.03 Free Full Text
  2. May P. A., Hasken, J. M., Hooper, S. R. Hedrick, D. M., Jackson-Newsom, J., Mullis, C. E., … Hoyme, H. E. (2021). Estimating the community prevalence, child traits, and maternal risk factors of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) from a random sample of school children. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 227, 108918. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108918 Abstract
  3. May, P. A., Hasken, J. M., Manning, M. A., & Hoyme, H. E. (2021). The challenges and pitfalls of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders prevalence studies. Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research, 45(12), 2468–2470. doi:10.1111/acer. 14735
  4. Palmeter, S., Probert, A., & Lagacé, C. (2021). FASD prevalence among children and youth: Results from the 2019 Canadian Health Survey on Children and Youth. Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada: Research, Policy and Practice, 41(9), 272–276. doi:10.24095/hpcdp.41.9.05 Abstract Free Full Text
  5. Pei, J., Reid-Westoby, C., Siddiqua, A., Elshamy, Y., Rorem, D., Bennet, T. … Janus, M. (2021). Teacher-reported prevalence of FASD in kindergarten in Canada: Association with child development and problems at home. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51(2), 433–443. doi:10.1007/s10803-020-04545-w Abstract Free Full Text